- • Full Text of Code of Ethics for Academic Activities of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering:
- • For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instructions, International standards for editors and authors (https://publicationethics.org/resources/resources-and-further-reading/international-standards-editors-and-authors) can be applied.
Chapter 1 Overall Rules
Article 1 Purpose
This regulation aims to establish the ethical standard for the members of this institute to comply with and to contribute to the healthy development of academics and society in order for our academic activities related with the Korean Society for Precision Engineering (hereinafter referred to as the “Society”) to not infringe the dignity and value of human beings and maintain a high ethical standard that does not damage the benefits of public society.
Article 2 Application Area of Code of Ethics
- A. The code applies to the overall academic activities including all academic journals, academic conferences, symposiums, workshops, forums, etc. published and held by the Society.
- B. The code applies to all authors, reviewers, Editorial Board Members (hereinafter referred to as “EBM”, and hands-onworkers in the service bureau related with the above academic activities.
- C. Other items not set forth above may comply with this article, each level of regulations of Ministry of Education and its annex institutions.
Article 3 Scope of Misconduct
Misconduct suggested in this code include forging, falsification, plagiarism, and false indication of the author of the paper in academic activities, papers and presentations related with the society, and are as follows:
- A. ‘Forging’ is the act of creating false data or non-existent research results.
- B. ‘Falsification’ is the act of perverting research content or results by artificially modifying research ingredients, equipment or processes, or arbitrarily modifying and deleting data.
- C. ‘Plagiarism’ is the act of appropriating others’ ideas, research contents or results without proper approval or quotation. Upon receipt, submitted manuscripts are screened for possible plagiarism or duplicate publication using iThenticate.
- D. ‘False indication of the author of the paper’ is the act of not granting the qualification as an author of the paper without a reasonable cause to a person who contributed scientifically or technically on a research content or result, or granting qualification of an author of the paper to a person who did not contribute scientifically or technically to express gratitude or show respect.
- E. ‘Duplicate publication’ is the act of publishing the same content to two or more academic journals.
- F. Activity of intentionally interfering investigation on the doubts of one’s own or other’s misconduct, or disturbing the informant.
- G. Activity that seriously deviates from the scope commonly accepted in the science and technology sector.
- H. Activity other than the misconduct set forth above that needs to be independently investigated or prevented by the Society.
Chapter 2 Author
Article 4 Honesty of Author
- A. The author shall be honest in research carried out by an individual. Here, honesty refers to honesty in overall research processes including derivation of ideas, designing experiments, analyses of experiments and results, research funds, publishing research results, and fair compensation to research participants.
- B. The researcher shall consider plagiarism, fraud, manipulation and falsification during research as serious criminal activities, and endeavor to prevent these misconducts.
- C. The author shall announce and properly respond in case of contradiction or the possibility of contradiction of benefits of one’s own and others or other institutions.
Article 5 Authorship
It is recommended for every author including the first and corresponding author that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria:
- A. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
- B. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
- C. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
- D. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Article 6 Compliance of Authors
- A. During the research implementation process of the submitted paper, the author shall respect human rights, comply with life ethics, and obtain universality such as environment protection.
- B. In the submitted paper, the author shall accurately illustrate the research content and its importance without perverting the research result.
- C. The submitted paper shall comprehensively include an academically valuable result and its basis of argument. If the paper asserts for a conclusion similar to an already announced paper, it should be academically valuable for a new basis of argument.
- D. If citing a public academic data, its source must be clearly stated. For data obtained from an undisclosed paper, research plan or personal contact, it should be cited after consent from the researcher who provided the information.
- E. Using the whole or part of another researcher’s research result without citing the reference corresponds to plagiarism and is not allowed.
- F. The activity of duplicate publication by an author in the journal issued by the society where the paper is already published or planning to publish in other academic journal is considered misconduct and not allowed. Submitting content already presented in academic conferences or seminars by rewriting in a paper according to the academic journal standard is generally accepted, but it must additionally have an important research result for the relevant presentation.
- G. All researchers who made important contributions to research implementation shall become co-authors, and the representative author of the paper must have consents from all co-authors. For outside academic support such as administrative and financial support, provision of research data or simple academic advice shall be indicated in the ‘Acknowledgement’ for its content.
- H. Indicating a person who did not make academic contribution to research or falls short of contribution based on causes outside academics is unethical conduct that defames the dignity of academics.
- I. In relation to copyrights, if approval of a person in charge is needed, the author must be granted approval before submission of the paper, and confirm that there will be no dispute of contract or ownership that may be affected bythe publication of said paper.
Chapter 3 Roles and Responsibilities of Members of Society
Article 7 Compliance of Editorial Board Member (EBM)
- A. The EBM shall fairly and objectively execute the revision process of the paper according to the set regulation without prejudice on the author’s gender, age, race, affiliated institution or personal acquaintanceship with the author.
- B. The EBM shall determine whether to reconsider or publish the paper based on the consistent standard of the review results for the submitted paper.
- C. If it is determined that due to the lack of EBM’s knowledge in the research area of the submitted paper, there may be difficulty in judging the result, the EBM may be advised by a person with professional knowledge in the relevant area.
- D. The EBM shall not disclose or make use of the information acquired in the review process to others. Before the publication in the journal, it is not even allowed to cite the content of the relevant paper without the consent of the author.
- E. The EBM has the responsibility to monitor any unethical activity of the author and reviewers, and when ethically inadequate behavior is discovered; the EBM shall investigate and give proper sanction as required by immediately reporting to the Editor-in-Chief.
- F. If the submitted paper has direct interest with the EBM, it should be reported to the Editor so that the relevant paper can be examined by another EBM.
- G. In case of reasons that prevent the EBM to promptly process the duty, it is advised to report to the editorial office of the society or the Editor.
- H. In case of discovering any unethical activity from a submitted paper or reviewing process, or in case of deprecation on unethical activities, the Editor shall determine the importance of the case, and organize an Investigation Committee with EBM in the relevant area if needed. The Editorial Board determines the level of sanction to the relevant person based on the report by the Investigation Committee, and if the already published paper is related, the publication of the relevant paper may be retracted and cancelled.
Article 8 Compliance of Reviewers
- A. The reviewer shall fairly and objectively perform reviewing duty for examining the paper according to the set regulation without the prejudice on the author’s gender, age, race, affiliated institution or personal acquaintanceship with the author. Personal academic beliefs that have not been completed, verified or under judgment based on assumption must be eliminated.
- B. The reviewer, in order to assure the secrecy of reviewing the paper, must not disclose or make use of information acquired in the process of reviewing to others. Before the publication of the paper, it is not allowed to even cite the content of the relevant paper without the consent of the author.
- C. The reviewer must respect the personality of the author as a professional. The reviewer shall endeavor to write the objective reviewer’s opinion in an academically modest way by eliminating personal and subjective evaluations and offensive expressions. The reviewer shall state in details the review comments and basis for the comments of the paper under review.
- D. It is prohibited to request for additional information or explanation to the author for the reviewer’s personal purpose.
- E. If the similar content to the paper disclosed in other academic journal has been included in the paper without citation, the EBM should be notified in detail.
- F. If the reviewer is in direct interest with the requested paper or it is determined that the reviewer’s own professional area is not suitable for examining the submitted paper, the reviewer should immediately notify the EBM in charge so that other reviewers may be appointed. Also, in case of reason for not being able to finish the review within the deadline, it needs to be notified to the EBM.
Chapter 4 Verification Process and Standard
Article 9 Ethics Committee
- A. In case of breach of ethics and suspected cases during academic activities, the society may organize an Ethics Committee (hereinafter referred to as “Committee”) to investigate the truth.
- B. Organization and Duties of Committee
- ① The Committee shall be composed of one chairman and five members.
- ② The Vice-President in charge of academic affairs shall be the chairman, and members shall be selected from the board of directors, and appointed by the chairman.
- ③ The chairman and members shall take office for 1 year from January 1 to December 31 and can be reelected.
- ④ The chairman shall represent the Committee and take charge of overall duties for ethics of society.
Article 10 Function of Ethics Committee
The Committee shall act in the following manners:
- A. Establish and promote research ethics.
- B. Prevent and discourage research misconduct.
- C. Deliberate and vote on research misconduct.
- D. Determine sanctions for wrongdoers and report the result to the board of directors.
- E. Improve and enhance other research ethics.
Article 11 Convocation and Voting of Ethics Committee
- A. The Committee shall be convened by the chairperson as needed, held in attendance of the majority of members, and resolved by over two-thirds of registered members’ agreements.
- B. The decision shall be notified to the suspected person (accused) of misconduct, and the explanatory opinion shall be received in writing within 15 days.
- C. The Committee shall review an explanatory opinion from the suspected person of misconduct, and hear an opinion if needed before making the final decision.
- D. The decision shall be reported to the board of directors for the final decision.
- E. If the chairman deems it necessary, opinions by a person other than external personnel or members can be heard.
- F. Presented content by participants and details of the Committee shall be undisclosed in principle.
Article 12 Reporting Research Misconduct
- A. Research misconduct may be reported in writing with related documents attached according to the five W’s and one H. However, even if anonymously reported, if it is clear based on the five W’s and one H, the Committee may review the initiation of investigation.
- B. The Society shall endeavor not to give any disadvantage, discrimination, unreasonable pressure or damage to the informant for reporting misconduct.
- C. The identity of the informant shall not be subject to disclosure, and the best measures shall be taken to prevent identity disclosure.
- D. In case the informant wishes to know the investigation schedule and procedure after reporting misconduct, the Society shall respond sincerely.
- E. The informant who made the report although it was known or it could be known that the information given is false shall not be subject to protection.
Article 13 Sanctions on Research Misconduct and Follow-up Actions
- A. The author whose research misconduct has been confirmed shall be imposed with sanction by selecting from the following considering the severity of the misconduct according to the decision made by the Committee:
- ① Cancel publication of relevant research subject to the Society publication
- ② Prohibit submission of paper to the journal issued by the Society for five years
- ③ Prohibit presentation in the Society academic conference for five years
- ④ If the relevant paper has already been published, notify cancellation of publication in the relevant academic journal, and notify the misconduct to the affiliated institution of the wrongdoer
- ⑤ Cancel membership to the Society
- B. If the informant intentionally made a false report, the sanction equivalent to the research misconduct may be given according to the decision of the Committee.
Article 14 Protection of Rights of Examinee
- A. The examinee refers to a person who has become the subject of investigation for misconduct due to the report or cognition by the Society or related institution, or a person who has become the subject of investigation by suspecting of taking part in misconduct during the investigation process. The examinee shall not include testifiers or witnesses.
- B. The Society shall be careful not to violate the dignity or rights of an examinee during the verification process. Also, until the confirmation of the results, the examinee shall have an equal opportunity for objection or defense, and shall be notified in advance of the related procedure.
- C. The suspicion on misconduct shall not be disclosed to the public until the judgment has been confirmed. However, this does not include cases where serious risk may be present to public welfare or social norms.
- D. The examinee may request for investigation and processing procedure as well the processing schedule for misconduct to the Society, and said the Society shall respond sincerely.
Article 15 Disclosure of Record and Information of Investigation
- A. The Committee shall store the investigation report of the entire investigation process obtained in the form of voice, video or written document for at least 5 years.
- B. The report of investigation and list of investigators may be disclosed after judgment has been made.
- C. If the list of investigators, witnesses, testifiers, or consultants has the possibility to cause disadvantage to the concerned personnel, it may not be disclosed.
Article 16 Report of Investigation Result
- A. The Committee shall report the confirmation of the examined content to the board of directors within 6 months of the submission date after completion and judgment of the investigation.
- B. The report of the result must include each of the following items:
- ① Content of information
- ② Misconduct subject to investigation
- ③ List of investigators of Investigation Committee
- ④ The role of the examinee in the relevant research and validity of misconduct
- ⑤ Related evidence and witnesses
- ⑥ Objection or defense by informant and examinee, and its processing result
- C. Until the final judgment on the research misconduct, it must not be disclosed to the public.